Archive for the ‘Civil rights movement’ Category

Paul Robeson: An Extraordinary Man Part 1

Paul Robeson was a phenomenal man. His accomplishments seem to defy human possibility in any era, but particularly during a time when the USA was a rabidly racist country.  He was an outstanding scholar, athlete, actor, singer, freedom fighter and international people’s champion.

Robeson was a citizen of the world who not only fought for the rights of Blacks in America, but for the working-class throughout the globe including the Soviet Union and China.  He also forged close alliances with various trade unions, Welsh and Canadian miners and other groups.  The fact that he spoke more than 20 languages, including Russian, Chinese, Arabic, Yiddish, German and several African languages, made him more effective.  Robeson was also very well-versed in world culture.

He was born in Princeton, New Jersey on April 9, 1898. His father was an escaped slave who graduated from college and became a minister, and his mother was a Quaker school teacher who died when he was young.

Robeson was a bright student who entered Rutgers University in 1915.  He was an outstanding athlete, a member of Phi Beta Kappa and in 1919 the class valedictorian.

In 1921 Robeson married Eslanda Goode. That same year he played for the Akron Pros, an integrated NFL team coached by Fritz Pollard, the NFL’s first Black coach. He ended his career in 1922 and a few months later graduated from Columbia University Law School. Sadly, his law career was derailed by racism.

In 1924 he appeared in Eugene O’Neill’s “All God’s Chillin,” a controversial play that paired his character with a white wife who kisses his hand.  The KKK threatened to kill him because of this.  In 1925 Robeson performed in “Showboat” in London.  “Ole Man River” would become his signature song.

In 1930 Robeson performed Shakespeare’s Othello on the London stage and received 20 curtain calls on opening night. He was invited to perform at Buckingham Place.

In addition to being a Broadway star, Robeson was an international celebrity who enjoyed an illustrious film and stage career that spanned decades.  His performances also include: “Shuffle Along,” “The Emperor Jones,” “Song of Freedom,” Oscar Michaeaux’s “Body and Soul,” and “King Solomon’s Mines.”

In 1937 he founded the Council on African Affairs, an organization that supported anti-colonial movements.  During the Spanish Civil War that same year, he brought about a cease-fire for several hours when both sides stopped to listen to him sing from the front lines in Madrid.

Robeson led a Black delegation before the Baseball Commission in 1943 to petition for the removal of racial barriers in pro baseball. This led to the hiring of Jackie Robinson.

In 1946 he and Albert Einstein co-chaired the 100 Day Crusade to End Lynching, and in 1951 Robeson presented a petition to the UN charging the US with Black genocide.


Another Side of Rosa Parks Part 2

I posted Part 2 late Thursday or early Friday so it has a Friday date.  I will be submitting a second post later tonight on Feb 8.  Also, I made a slight change to Part 1 beginning with the words “In 1944….”

Mrs. Parks, Nixon and other activists formed the Alabama Committee for Equal Justice for Mrs. Recy Taylor.  The Chicago Defender called this the strongest campaign mounted for equal justice in ten years.  The Recy Taylor case  was national news and activists and the Black press throughout the country were involved.

The outcome of the first trial was a forgone conclusion since none of the rapists were ever arrested and there was a racist all-white male jury.  The case was dismissed.  Shortly afterwards Mrs. Taylor received death threats and then white supremacists firebombed her home.  Mrs. Taylor, her husband and child went to live with Mrs. Taylor’s father and her siblings.

After much pressure from the Black community at-large, the case went before a second all white male Grand Jury.   Some of the assailants admitted they raped Mrs. Taylor but none were indicted and the case was dismissed.

The Black community was shocked and outraged a second time.  Although the outcome was devastating, this campaign was so well-organized it helped launch future successful civil rights efforts.  The Montgomery Bus Boycott being one of them, thanks in large part to Mrs. Parks.

Rosa Parks passed away on October 24, 2005 at her home in Detroit, Michigan. She was the first woman to lie in state in the Capitol Rotunda, the first American non-government official and the second Black person to have this honor bestowed on her since its inception in 1852.